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In 1878, when Giuseppe Donati had a workshop in Bologna, Cesare Vicinelli began to make ocarinas at a place not far from Budrio known as "Fornace Silvani" ["The Silvani Kiln"].
His father had been a baker and he was an experienced baker himself, Cesare's expertise as a kilnman and as a multi-instrument musician placed him in an excellent position to become an ocarina maker and player. He accordingly invented proper moulds, which vastly increased his output.


Antonio Canella was making ocarinas in Ferrara from about 1878 to 1940

. Like Donati he made various types; double ocarinas (one above the other), with a metal piston to alter pitch, etc.

He made up to 100 ocarinas daily and exported them far and wide. He also made artistic ocarinas for special commissions.

C. Mathieu was making ocarinas in 'fin de seicle' Paris - he patented a metal ocarina shaped like a bird, mounted on a metal support, that stood more than one metre high.


A `Compagnie Generale de L'Ocarina' was formed to promote ocarina playing in France.
In Pistoia. G.Boscherini, in Milan. Ghezzi, Epaminonda Bezzi in Ravenna, in Vienna, H.Viehn, and other makers in Italy and the rest of the world were beginning, or in, full production.


Ottorino Respighi Antonio Certani Ligeti, Penderecki and Janacek are only a few of the Composers who wrote parts for ocarina in their orchestral works.


When Cesare Vicinelli died in 1920 Guido Chiesa, his assistant for twenty-four years, was heir to his studio,his tools,his house and his tradition.


Chiesa was then thirty-six,having been born into a market-gardening family in 1884.
Vincinelli had not been too keen to teach the subtle secrets of fine ocarina making to his erstwhile apprentice who had to shine for the honour of the Sylvani studio and the Budrio tradition.

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